Publications

2017

Joseph Wiggins, Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Do You Think You Can? The Influence of Student Self-Efficacy on the Effectiveness of Tutorial Dialogue for Computer Science. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 27(1), 130-153, 2017.

2016

Alexandria Vail, Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Gender Differences in Facial Expressions of Affect During Learning. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization, pp. 65-73, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2016.
Alexandria Vail, Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Predicting Learning from Student Affective Response to Tutor Questions. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 154-164, Zagreb, Croatia, 2016.

2015

Aysu Ezen-Can, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Shaun Kellogg, and Sherry Booth. Unsupervised Modeling for Understanding MOOC Discussion Forums: A Learning Analytics Approach. Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, pp. 146-150, Poughkeepsie, New York, 2015.
Aysu Ezen-Can, Joseph Grafsgaard, James Lester, and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Classifying Student Dialogue Acts with Multimodal Learning Analytics. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, pp. 280-289, Poughkeepsie, New York, 2015.
Aysu Ezen-Can and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Understanding Student Language: An Unsupervised Dialogue Act Classification Approach. International Journal of Educational Data Mining, 7(1), 51-78, 2015.

2014

Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Alexandria Vail, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. The Additive Value of Multimodal Features for Predicting Engagement, Frustration, and Learning during Tutoring. Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, pp. 42-49, Istanbul, Turkey, 2014.
Alexandria Vail, Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, James Lester, and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Predicting Learning and Engagement in Tutorial Dialogue: A Personality-Based Model. Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, pp. 255-262, Istanbul, Turkey, 2014.
Aysu Ezen-Can and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Toward Adaptive Unsupervised Dialogue Act Classification in Tutoring by Gender and Self-Efficacy. Workshop on Non-Cognitive Factors & Personalization for Adaptive Learning in Extended Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining, London, United Kingdom, 2014.
Aysu Ezen-Can and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. A Preliminary Investigation of Learner Characteristics for Unsupervised Dialogue Act Classification. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 373-374, London, United Kingdom, 2014.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Predicting Learning and Affect from Multimodal Data Streams in Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 122-129, London, England, 2014.
Aysu Ezen-Can and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Combining Task and Dialogue Streams in Unsupervised Dialogue Act Models. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 113-122, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2014.
Alexandria Vail and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Adapting to Personality Over Time: Examining the Effectiveness of Dialogue Policy Progressions in Task-Oriented Interaction. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 41-50, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2014.
Alexandria Vail and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. Identifying Effective Moves in Tutoring: On the Refinement of Dialogue Act Annotation Schemes. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 199-209, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2014.
Joseph Wiggins, Joseph Grafsgaard, Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and the Effectiveness of Tutorial Interactions. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on AI-supported Education for Computer Science, pp. 31-40, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2014.
Eric Wiebe, Allison Lamb, Megan Frankosky, and David Sharek. Measuring engagement in video game-based environments: Investigation of the User Engagement Scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 32(3), 123-132, 2014.

2013

Chris Mitchell, Eun Young Ha, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Learner Characteristics and Dialogue: Recognizing Effective and Student-Adaptive Tutorial Strategies. International Journal of Learning Technology, 8(4), 382-403, 2013.
Megan Hardy, Eric Wiebe, Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Physiological Responses to Events During Training: Use of Skin Conductance to Inform Future Adaptive Learning Systems. Proceedings of the Fifty-Seventh Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, pp. 2101-2105, San Diego, California, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Automatically Recognizing Facial Indicators of Frustration: A Learning-Centric Analysis. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, pp. 159-165, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
Aysu Ezen-Can and Kristy Elizabeth Boyer. In-Context Evaluation of Unsupervised Dialogue Act Models for Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 324-328, Metz, France, 2013.
Eun Young Ha, Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Learning Dialogue Management Models for Task-Oriented Dialogue with Parallel Dialogue and Task Streams. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 204-213, Metz, France, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Evaluating State Representations for Reinforcement Learning of Turn-Taking Policies in Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 339-343, Metz, France, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Embodied Affect in Tutorial Dialogue: Student Gesture and Posture. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 1-10, Memphis, Tennessee, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. When to Intervene: Toward a Markov Decision Process Dialogue Policy for Computer Science Tutoring. Proceedings of the AIED Workshop on AI-supported Education for Computer Science, pp. 40-49, Memphis, Tennessee, 2013.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. A Markov Decision Process Model of Tutorial Intervention in Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 828-831, Memphis, Tennessee, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Automatically Recognizing Facial Expression: Predicting Engagement and Frustration. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 43-50, Memphis, Tennessee, 2013.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Joseph Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Modeling Student Programming with Multimodal Learning Analytics. Proceedings of the ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE), pp. 736-736, Denver, Colorado, 2013.

2012

Joseph Grafsgaard, Robert Fulton, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Multimodal Analysis of the Implicit Affective Channel in Computer-Mediated Textual Communication. Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, pp. 145-152, Santa Monica, California, 2012.
Eun Young Ha, Joseph Grafsgaard, Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Combining Verbal and Nonverbal Features to Overcome the 'Information Gap' in Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 247-256, Seoul, South Korea, 2012.
Chris Mitchell, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. From Strangers to Partners: Examining Convergence within a Longitudinal Study of Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 94-98, Seoul, South Korea, 2012.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Toward a Machine Learning Framework for Understanding Affective Tutorial Interaction. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 52-58, Crete, Greece, 2012.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric Wiebe, and James Lester. Analyzing Posture and Affect in Task-Oriented Tutoring. Proceedings of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems Track of the Twenty-Fifth International Conference of the Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society, pp. 438-443, Marco Island, Florida, 2012.
Chris Mitchell, Eun Young Ha, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Recognizing Effective and Student-Adaptive Tutor Moves in Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems Track of the Twenty-Fifth International Conference of the Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society, pp. 450-455, Marco Island, Florida, 2012.

2011

Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, and James Lester. Predicting Facial Indicators of Confusion with Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, pp. 97-106, Memphis, Tennessee, 2011.
Joseph Grafsgaard, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. Modeling Confusion: Facial Expression, Task, and Discourse in Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 98-105, Auckland, New Zealand, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Joseph Grafsgaard, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. An Affect-Enriched Dialogue Act Classification Model for Task-Oriented Dialogue. Proceedings of the Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, pp. 1190-1199, Portland, Oregon, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. The Impact of Task-Oriented Feature Sets on HMMs for Dialogue Modeling. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 49-58, Portland, Oregon, 2011.
James Lester, Scott McQuiggan, and Jennifer Sabourin. Affect Recognition and Expression in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. New Perspectives on Affect and Learning Technologies, R.A. Calvo & S.K. D'Mello (Eds.), pp. 85-96, Springer, New York, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, and James Lester. Learning a Tutorial Dialogue Policy for Delayed Feedback. Proceedings of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems Track of the Twenty-Fourth International Conference of the Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society, pp. 489-494, Palm Beach, Florida, 2011.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Amy Ingram, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Investigating the Relationship Between Dialogue Structure and Tutoring Effectiveness: A Hidden Markov Modeling Approach. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 21(1-2), 65-81, 2011.

2010

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Dialogue Act Modeling in a Complex Task-Oriented Domain. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual SIGDIAL Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, pp. 297-305, Tokyo, Japan, 2010.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Amy Ingram, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Characterizing the Effectiveness of Tutorial Dialogue with Hidden Markov Models. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 55-64, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2010.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Eun Young Ha, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Leveraging Hidden Dialogue State to Select Tutorial Moves. Proceedings of the Fifth NAACL HLT Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pp. 66-73, Los Angeles, California, 2010.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, William Lahti, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Principles of Asking Effective Questions During Student Problem Solving. Proceedings of the Forty-first ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, pp. 460-464, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 2010.

2009

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, William Lahti, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. An Empirically Derived Question Taxonomy for Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Question Generation, pp. 9-16, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2009.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eun Young Ha, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Inferring Tutorial Dialogue Structure with Hidden Markov Modeling. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pp. 19-26, Boulder, Colorado, 2009.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. The Impact of Instructor Initiative on Student Learning: A Tutoring Study. Proceedings of the Fortieth ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, pp. 14-18, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 2009.

2008

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Balancing Cognitive and Motivational Scaffolding in Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 239-249, Montreal, Canada, 2008.
Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Robert Phillips, Michael Wallis, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. Learner Characteristics and Feedback in Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pp. 53-61, Columbus, Ohio, 2008.

2007

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Mladen Vouk, and James Lester. The Influence of Learner Characteristics on Task-Oriented Tutorial Dialogue. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 365-372, Marina del Rey, California, 2007. (Best Student Paper Award)

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